These commerce raiders carried no armour because their purpose was to attack merchantmen, not to engage warships. Two banks of torpedo tubes were hidden in the sides, above the waterline, but the other two were submarine. Sank 5 ships (41 138 GRT), participated in the destruction of 4 others. She had 2 Heinkel 114. Almost survived the war, not being sunk until 4th May 1945 by aircraft at Swinemunde. Only Ramb I and Ramb II served as merchant raiders and neither ship sank enemy vessels. Helmoed Heitman says: August 17, 2015 at 11:59 am Returning to miniature … Profile of the Atlantis disguised as the Kasii Maru Launched in 1938 in Bremen. In the Pacific, the U.S. Navy operated against Japanese merchant shipping, as well as engaging in offensive operations against ships of the Japanese Imperial Navy. The changes, made through civilian authorities with civilian engineers and military equipment were sometimes radical, and the vessels in question, apart from speed, had real offensive capabilities, threatening even for cruisers. Sep 10, 2017 - Naval History from ancient times to this day, medieval, enlightment and industrial era, WW1 and WW2 and the cold war. Sunk by RAF in Swinemünde April 4, 1945. They were armed with six 15cm (5.9 inch) naval guns, some smaller guns, torpedoes, reconnaissance seaplanes and some were equipped for minelaying. 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Excellent book about a German WW1 commercial raider (heavily armed merchant ship aiming for oppositions cargo and transportation convoys) SMS Wolf whose role was … Tied to the supply ship KMS Uckermark in Yokohama November 30, 1942 but exlosed for still unclear reasons. Sank or captured 12 ships (96,541 GRT) in her first trip, 10 more in the second, totaling 55,587 GRT. The successful cruise of converted merchant ship "Pinguin"is described in parallel with the much less successful raiding activities of the heavy cruiser "Hipper". Hilfskreuzer on bismarck-class.dkDocumentary duel HMAS Sydney vs Kormoran. MINE AUSTRALIAN WATERS DURING WW2 German commerce raiders including the rogue German U-Boat U-862, operated off the Australian coastline during World War 2. The Devonshire sank the German commerce raider Atlantis on 22 November 1941. German Raiders - Only 11 months before German attacked Russia, “Komet” sailed for the Pacific through the North East Passage across the top of Siberia with the aid of Russian icebreakers. Requisitioned, armed, equipped and put into service in December 1939. The Pinguin's captain, Ernst-Felix Kruder, emerges as a forgotten hero of the war, and as a humane man as … German Commerce Raiders 1914–18 book. General Books LLC, Aug 20, 2010 - History - 90 pages. Germany sent out two waves of six surface raiders each during World War II. Had 2 Heinkel 114. Its 150 mm guns came from the old battleship Deutschland. They could also laid mines unsuspected, or repel strafing attacks by their AA artillery, all served by modern fire control systems. During the Civil War, Confederate commerce raiders sank so many Union merchant ships that the American Merchant Marine never fully recovered from its losses. The “Hilfskreuzer” (auxiliary cruisers, generally complemented by “HSK”- Handels Stör Kreuzer, commerce raiders) were one of the trump cards of Admiral Raeder in his strategy. During the Great War, Germany employed several ways to disrupt British trade and counter the Blockade, using a number of privateers: The Möwe, Wolf, Greif, Wolf II, Geier, Leopard, Iltis, and Seeadler (a tall ship). After this operation was canceled, the now renamed Stier was modified into an auxiliary cruiser in April 1941, first at the Wilton shipyard Rotterdam and later a… In Abrupt Reversal of Iran Strategy, Pentagon Orders Aircraft Carrier Home, Chinese Navy Faces Overseas Basing Weakness, Report Says, Maritime Leaders Will Seek Green Solutions at GreenTech Forum, Chinese Navy Faces Overseas Basing Weakness, This study will pay you to help prevent military suicides, Reestablish First Fleet: Deterrence in the Indo-Pacific, MMP missile fired with target designation provided by UAV. Ended in an unequal duel against the British heavy cruiser HMS Devonshire in the South Atlantic, November 23, 1941. Very fast for a cargo ship. Christened the Sea King, she made several runs to the Far East, until … Requisitioned, armed, equipped and returned into service in November 1939; Covers: Freighter MS Goldenfels, Norwegian Knute Nelson, Soviet freighter SS Kim, Japanese Kasii Maru, Dutch Abbekerk. They ships were generally recent, powerful and fast, roomy and adaptable (and equipped) to fake numerous identities. I thoroughly enjoyed this very readable account of two German commerce-raiders in the early years of WW2. 9 ships (HK1 to HK9) were put into service, keeping their civilian name: Orion, Atlantis, Widder, Thor, Pinguin, Stier, Komet, Kormoran and Michel. Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. Neutrals were visited by a company that checked the bulk list. The principle was to deter potential “predators”. Covers: Yugoslav SS Vir. The Hochseeflotte also commissioned a number of fast ships as auxiliary cruisers: Steamer SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, Prinz Eitel Friedrich, Crown Prince Wilhelm, and Kormoran, Cape Trafalgar, Berlin, Vineta and Meteor. Pages in category "World War II commerce raiders" The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total. Their arma… Guns were hidden under the hinged folding panels for quick release. The cargo was then torpedoed or gunned into oblivion after been warned to evacuate, leaving a chance to the crew. She operated in the Pacific and Indian Oceans until returning to Germany in November 1941, the last of the first wave of surface raiders to leave Germany. The Last Raider – July ’97 World War II Feature. In 1939, facing a lack of ships to launch an effective commerce war, the concept was reactivated with new ships converted, even more heavily armed than in teh first world war. Atlantic - Off the coast of Brazil on the … Covers: Dutch Beemsterdjik, Soviet SS Sovet, Japanese Maebasi Maru. Small torpedo crafts tailored to operate also from the ship were another way to deal with protected harbours, extend her reach or catch faster ships. In the Pacific, the U.S. Navy operated against Japanese merchant shipping, as well as engaging in offensive operations against ships of the Japanese Imperial Navy. During World War I, Imperial Germany put several commerce raiders to sea in an effort to disrupt the shipping routes on which Great Britain relied. Two Allied Submarines Acting as “Commerce Raiders” in the Pacific. Following the exploits of her illustrious predecessors, the career of the German commerce raider Stier came to an embarrassing end. Either a prize crew was sent aboard and the captured vessel sailed back to a friendly port or the vessel was sunk, usually through burning. Merchant raiders are armed commerce raiding ships that disguise themselves as non-combatant merchant vessels. 0 Reviews. In any case, they are lesswell known known that their successors, the WW2 German Commerce Raiders, often better armed and more successful, that is, until WW1 centennial make them rise again from memory. Its 150 mm guns came from the battleship Schliesen. This list may not reflect recent changes . Following the British victory in the South Atlantic, the only real concern on the West Coast lay in the potential danger posed by German merchantmen in neutral ports should they be fitted out as armed commerce raiders. Her cruise in the Pacific lasted 350 days, during which she sank or captured 11 ships, to be eventually tracked down and sunk by the Australian cruiser Sydney (also lost), following a bloody close quarter duel. Q-ships were warships posing as merchant ships so as to lure U-boats to attack them; their mission of destroying enemy warships differed significantly from the raider objective of disrupting enemy trade. Picture a commerce raider, disguised as a freighter, but armed with 5.9 inch main guns and torpedo tubes, plus mines for mine-laying, ... adventure, history, ww2, maritime-history, military-navy. English: German Auxiliary cruisers, Commerce raiders or Merchant raiders were civilian ships, often passenger ships, which were fairly heavily armed during World War II to become warships for convoy escort or attacking other merchant ships. Here are the stories of Germany’s five Pacific raiders and their amazing voyages. KMS Widder Launched in 1930 in Kiel. Upload media: Instance of: Wikimedia list article: Authority control Q1203095. Yet despite its ferocity, the Nazi’s Pacific campaign has been largely forgotten. 1st phase of German commerce warfare: Liners If it was bound for neutral ports, the cargo could resume its journey unmolested, otherwise the process was repeated, crew evacuated and the ship sunk. Reply . Known by British intelligence as “Raider E”. A late addition to the Confederacy’s armada, the raider was originally built by Alexander Stephens & Sons for Robertson & Co. of Glasgow, Scotland, not as a warship, but for East Asia tea trading. Survived the war and became the British repair ship Ulysses. I t was a gloomy morning that greeted the crew of the 7,181-ton Liberty ship Stephen Hopkins on September 27, 1942. Their most active and effective period was 1939-1941: Together they sank 140 ships, a total of 700 000 tons. These vessels were faster than regular merchant vessels, which was important for a warship. A score well above other military ships of the Kriegsmarine, and also superior to many U-Bootes. Navis Neptun 1020 HSK 1 Orion - Schiff 36 Raider A 1940 1/1250 A 1/1250 scale metal model of Orion HSK-1 by Navis Neptun 1020. They were the deadliest ships of World War II--nine German commerce raiders disguised as peaceful cargo ships, flying the flags of neutral and allied nations. Q1203095 Wikimedia list article. World War II Commerce Raiders: German Auxiliary Cruiser Atlantis, German Auxiliary Cruiser Kormoran, German Auxiliary Cruiser Pinguin, German Night Fighter Direction Vessel Togo, German Auxiliary Cruiser Thor, German Auxiliary Cruiser Komet. Armed passenger Liners have been used in navies since the days of the American Civil war. Submarine patrolling in the Pacific. Disguised as a cargo and flying neutral flags and markings or the silhouette of another ship through improvised contraptions. Particular targets of the British cruisers were the supply ships which replenished German submarines and surface raiders. One could still make a difference. The Karlsruhe, the lone ship based in the Caribbean, headed to the mid-Atlantic. When not gathered to be kept on board, crews of sunk ships were often given food, blankets, navigation instruments or maps and directions. KMS Orion in 1940 (bismarck-class.dk) Launched in 1931 in Hamburg, former SS Kurmark. During World War II, elements of the United States Navy based in Brazil conducted operations in the Atlantic against German commerce raiders and blockade runners. Shenandoah. Battle between HMAS Sydney and Kormoran Probably the most famous German Hilfskreuzer, and corsair of the Second World War. Left: The 300-ft-long USS Pollack, like the USS Porpoise shown here, had four forward and two aft torpedo tubes, one 4‑in/50 caliber (102mm) deck gun, and four 7.62mm machine guns. But from the nineteenth century, all hulls were painted with rows of false gun ports, and this according to a stylistic tradition continued until the twentieth century. Books, LLC. The U.S. Navy decided the best defense was a good offense and planned to build a small fleet of large cruisers, or CBs, to chase them down Japanese commerce raiders. Also training ship Neumark. Germany used several merchant raiders early in World War I (1914–1918), and again early in World War II (1939–1945). The concept of commerce raiding was centuries old at least. The aim of the design was to have them mimicking a large array of near-similar or approaching neutral ships, approach other ships, then reveal their true identity. A German merchant raider emblazoned with … Rain squalls, high winds and … Using such kind of ship was singular but not anachronistic: Nearly half of the merchant tonnage in 1914 was still assumed by sailing ships. A. German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis; H. German auxiliary cruiser Hansa; J. Japanese raiders in the Indian Ocean; K. German auxiliary cruiser Komet ; German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran; L. List of Japanese auxiliary cruiser commerce raiders … For more than a year, the raiders waged an unremitting ‘pirate war’ that spanned half the world’s surface and ultimately cost the Allies more than 60 merchant ships. Many of these vessels had originally been refrigerator ships, used to transport fresh food from the tropics. Their armament was obsolete (old cannons salvaged from cruisers of the Hochseeflotte), but their crews were hand-picked and the best in the German Navy. Sank or captured 22 ships during her career (145 968 GRT), which classed her among the best German Hilfskreuzers. The most famous captain of a German merchant raider, Felix von Luckner, used the sailing ship SMS Seeadler for his voyage (1916–1917). The Pinguin's captain, Ernst-Felix Kruder, emerges as a forgotten hero of the war, and as a humane … After merchant warfare operations in the Baltic Sea, she was converted into a mine layer and was planned to be used during Operation Sea Lion. They guy who posted it is a Navy Corpsman. Such procedure did not include capture but annihilation of the opposing ship, often after allowing the crew to evacuate, by means of 150 mm reformed guns and torpedo tubes. The first of these were primarily warships. Perhaps the most successful commerce raider aside from the Alabama and Florida was the C.S.S. I found this post on Facebook, how do you guys respond to this? The British deployed Armed Merchant Cruisers in World War I and in World War II. A commerce raider hailed its prey, sometimes with a show of force (such as the 'shot across the bow'), and accepted the merchant's surrender. Some of their feats of seamanship are just staggerring. Most of these vessels were in the 8,000–10,000 long tons (8,100–10,200 t) range. Eventually most were sunk or transferred to other duties. During World War I, the British Royal Navy deployed Q-ships to combat German U-boats. The Pollack conducted eleven war patrols. Covers: Norwegian SS Narvik, Spain’s Neptuno. By Jon Guttman . Its 150 mm guns came from pre-dreadnought Deutschland. Ships typologies and fleets studies. In that case, however, although it was over 20 years old, Rainbow was still faster than all but a few commercial vessels and adequately armed to subdue them. In World War II nine German Merchant raiders, Atlantis, Komet, Kormoran, ... Osprey books has a couple of good books on these commerce raiders. What generally followed was a short and bloody artillery duel at close range for which the Raider had the advantage of surprise. The successful cruise of converted merchant ship "Pinguin"is described in parallel with the much less successful raiding activities of the heavy cruiser "Hipper". Chao Yung (Chaoyong) class protected cruisers (1880), KSOE wins AiP for wing-sail propulsion system, Dive tank for subsea work under construction. Italy intended to outfit four refrigerated banana boats as merchant raiders during World War II (Ramb I, Ramb II, Ramb III and Ramb IV). I thoroughly enjoyed this very readable account of two German commerce-raiders in the early years of WW2. They were feared by allied crews, but in general their captains behaved according to the natural unwritten solidarity rules of sailors at sea. Ran aground on a sandbar near Bergen and was scrapped in situ in 1955. With 35 German cargo vessels stranded in the Pacific region by the outbreak of war, the high command was anxious to test the feasibility of bringing them home during the summer of 1940, as well as exploring the possibility of using the Arctic route for other shipping, preferably commerce raiders, enabling them to safely pass to and from the Pacific. Became the gunners training ship Hector in January 1944, then cadet training ship Orion in 1945. Theodore Roosevelt Carrier Strike Group Enters South China Sea > US Indo-Pacific Command ... Elbit Systems to supply Seagull USV to Asia Pacific customer. The Stephen Hopkins fought one of the most gallant actions in World War II against two German raiders on September 27 about midway between Capetown and Rio de Janeiro. On her first patrol off the main Japanese island of Honshū in January 1942, the … List of Japanese auxiliary cruiser commerce raiders, Marauders of the Sea, German Armed Merchant Raiders During World War 1, Wolf, Marauders of the Sea, German Armed Merchant Raiders During World War 1, Möwe, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Merchant_raider&oldid=889881160, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2010, Articles lacking sources from February 2008, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 March 2019, at 15:38. Eventually raiders also sometimes attacked military vessels. The Germans used a sailing ship at this stage of the war because coal-fired ships had limited access to fuel outside of territories held by the Central Powersdue to international regulations concerning refueling of combat ships … Blueprint of the Pinguin, same class as the Atlantis. Please note that the content of this book … Without them the submarines would have to withdraw. The commerce raiders were military ships in the form of light cruisers. Just as during the First World War, the German navy turned for use as auxiliary cruisers a number of recent, massive and fast freighters. The results they obtained in operations were generally good. Two man Japanese suicide … They ships were generally recent, powerful and fast, roomy and adaptable (and equipped) to fake numerous identities. Sank or captured 10 ships (58 644 GRT) in a 180-day cruise. During the Secession war already, the Confederate Navy largely outclassed, used armed civilian ships as commerce raiders and blockade runners, while already the young American navy used fast bricks and armed merchant clippers to attack British vessels in 1815. Built by Germaniawerft in 1936 as the freighter Cairo, she was operated by the Atlas Levant Line (ALL) until being requisitioned for Kriegsmarine services in November 1939. Support Naval Encyclopedia, get your poster or wallpaper now ! Requisitioned, armed, equipped and put into service in September 1939. (Ramb III served as a convoy escort and Ramb IV was converted for the Italian Royal Navy to a hospital ship.). Generally adapted from passenger liners, they were larger than the German merchant raiders. German Commerce raiders and Auxiliary Cruisers. No radar was provided so she carried Arado 196 for advanced long range recognition, and a single torpedo craft LS3, able to launch two aviation torpedoes. The Germans used a sailing ship at this stage of the war because coal-fired ships had limited access to fuel outside of territories held by the Central Powers due to international regulations concerning refueling of combat ships in neutral countries. British secret service “Raider-G.” Like any of its kinds, she wore a heavy armament, hidden 150 mm pieces and AA artillery in dismantled parts easy to reassemble very quickly. The Imperial German Navy had eight of them at the start of the war in 1914 – seven in the Pacific and one in the West Indies. On 1 … During World War II, elements of the United States Navy based in Brazil conducted operations in the Atlantic against German commerce raiders and blockade runners. Declared total loss, scrapped in situ afterwards. Requisitioned, armed, equipped and put into service in March 1940. Their process was intangible: When a raider spotted a merchant ship, the former was closing up to be at firing range, compared the name of the ship to Lloyd’s register to identify her as Belligerent or neutral. This page is about a commerce raider. The German Imperial Navy, before the outbreak of World war one, requested that the major German Ocean Liner and shipping companies. In 1939, facing a lack of ships to launch an effective commerce war, the concept was reactivated with new ships converted, even more heavily armed than in teh first world war. Returned to Germany, was used as training ship Fenchenheim. Some corsairs also started to use various disguises to hide their armament, unveiled only at the last moment. With the ability to change their own ship's profile and, therefore, their own apparent identity, these nine were Germany's secret commerce raiders of the high seas during WW2. I personally believe commerce raiders are a great first strike option, one which we need be careful about being used against the U.S. produce their new ships with special requirements, so that in case of war they could easily be converted … … However the results of their campaign was relatively disappointing. Formerly the bulk carrier Steiermark, it was rebuilt in Kiel in 1938-39, and completed in 1940 under the name of Schiff 41, and a profile resembling Viacheslev Molotov and Japanese Satiko and Kinka Maru (above). Originally built for the Hamburg Amerika Line the Orion commissioned on the 9th December 1939 and sailed on 6th April 1940. The captain waited until the military ship was close enough to launch an inspection party and unveiled at the last moment its true colours while revealing its artillery hidden behind folding panels, and opening fire asap, even also sometimes launching a torpedo without warning. For long range reconnaissance they embarked one of two seaplane. The Orion commissioned on the … the Last raider – July ’ 97 World II... Most of these vessels were in the destruction of 4 others were in the Caribbean, to. According to the supply ship kms Uckermark in Yokohama November 30, 1942 but exlosed for still unclear.. 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