Flooding can also be divided into different categories according to their location: 1. This is a great website on managing floods and includes case studies. Very large and powerful floods can even dislodge buildings from their foundations and move them. The river valleys are steep and composed of shale, an impermeable rock. The River Valency’s valley has a high relief and steep sides so surface runoff was increased. Roads were destroyed, costing money to repair and disrupting trade. Click here to be taken to the Greenfield Geography page. Reconstruction didn’t begin until 2005 as the council waited on a report from hydrologists to determine the recurrence interval of the flood. The Kosi River had flood defences that were supposed to handle approximately 30,000m3 of water per second7 but were breached at a fraction of that capacity suggesting that the defences were defective or poorly maintained. See also advice from SEPA (Scottish environmental protection agency) in this handbook, which looks at case studies … Whether this is a human factor is debatable as, while climate change is definitely happening, whether it’s the result of human activity is still uncertain. Britain has been hit by the most severe flooding (2014) in 90 years and water levels are still … The first is simply the primary channel of the waterway, called the floodway. These floods are often annual, occurring every year when snow melts in the spring. Case study of a flood in South Africa. Although many floods are triggered directly by precipitation just a few hours after it falls some floods can be triggered by precipitation that fell many months ago. 400,000 people were evacuated to relief camps. 75 cars & 6 buildings were washed out to sea. After heavy precipitation, the discharge will rise even more and floods are likely, especially at confluences (where a tributary meets the river) as this is where discharge is highest. Flood water could be electrically charged if there are downed power lines. (external link) Informal Settlements: 4. It was estimated to cost $500 million to build new embankments, strengthen existing embankments, improve flood management and improve flood prediction technologies. As the River Valency flowed through Boscastle, its channel had been walled off preventing it from adjusting to the increased discharge and limiting its efficiency, ultimately causing it flood. The floodway of the Todd River in Australia’s Northern Territory, for example, is a … Flooding Can Help Protect Wetlands From Climate Change # geography # wetlands Targeted flooding may be one tool that conservationists and wetland restoration specialists have to make wetland areas more resilient in the face of climate change. The rainfall ultimately led to widespread floods in Bihar, an Indian state, that made millions homeless and claimed the lives of hundreds of people. Floods will commonly inundate farmland because farmland normally develops on floodplains. Flash floods are sudden and unexpected, taking place when very intense rains fall over a very brief period. Furthermore, cattle are often killed by floods which can lead to people starving because they either don’t have a source of food or don’t have a source of income to buy food with. Floods are also responsible for moving large amounts of sediments about within streams. Whilst spring melt, dams bursting and heavy rains will increase the amount of water in the river channel, many river channels can cope with this. If a flood happens in an empty field, then the damage from flooding may be relatively mild. A combination of the remnants of Hurricane Alex and convectional rainfall triggered by the intense heating of the ground by the summer heat led to heavy rainfall over the south of England. This may happen if the underlying rock is impermeable —lacking pores, tiny holes that allow water through. In general, a large flood has a large recurrence interval so it isn’t very frequent. When the plan to reconstruct infrastructure was laid out, it was expected that 90 bridges and 290km of road would be reconstructed, benefiting 2 million people. For example, a flood with a discharge of 200m3s-1 occurred at some point in the river’s past. River floods. 3. Coasts. Awe and wonder. Put most simply, a flood is an overflow of water in one place. Plants slow down water as it runs over the land, giving it time to enter the ground. Raw sewage was washed out to sea and into the River Valency. Where do people live today? Page 152 Turn to: Page 152 of Sec 2 Geography textbook 3. Rainwater will enter the river much faster than it would if the ground wasn’t saturated leading to higher discharge levels and floods. The government released 125,000 tonnes of emergency grain that was to be distributed in Bihar. Have an idea for this article? Please contribute it! Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. Map modified from this map by PlaneMad/Wikipedia. This will produce a high peak discharge and can lead to flash floods. A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry. The remains of the “lower bridge” that triggered a 3m wave were demolished and replaced with a larger bridge that would be more difficult to block with debris. Coastal Floods usually occur along coastal areas. The recurrence interval is a way of measuring the frequency of a flood of a specific size occurring. River floods. More than anything, the recurrence interval is a nice way of describing a complicated topic using simple Maths. A levee in one location may just force the high water up or downstream and cause flooding there. being installed in the new buildings. First, it contaminates not just floodwater but drinking water too which leads to a spread of waterborne diseases such as cholera especially in LEDCs where emergency drinking water mightn’t be available. Climate change is a physical factor that could, potentially, be a human factor. Especially within urban areas, the effects of flash floods can be catastrophic and show extensive diversity, ranging from damages in buildings and infrastructure to impacts on vegetation, human lives and livestock. If the floodwater isn’t polluted though, flooding can create wetlands that can help introduce new habitats for many species of animals. A flood occurs when an area that is normally dry gets submerged in water. The meltwater can enter rivers and greatly increase the river’s discharge leading to a flood. River models. If there’s a sudden “burst” of heavy rain, the rainwater won’t be able to infiltrate fast enough and the water will instead enter the river via surface runoff. The “lower bridge” was badly damaged when debris blocked it and water pooled behind it. Managing flooding in urban, rural and informal settlement areas. For a hugely detailed list of the responses laid out by the World Bank, have a look at this PDF file. Read it here. 1. By early 2005, power and water was back up. The relief and steepness of the basin affects how quickly water enters a river and so how likely a river is to flood. Helicopters were also provided but were limited in their effectiveness due to the continued heavy rain. If the floodwater is polluted by sewage, it will contaminate the farmland and make any food grown on it dangerous to eat. On the 16th of August, 2004, the small town of Boscastle was almost completely destroyed in the space of just two hours when a 1 in 400 year flash flood occurred at around 3pm and inundated most of the town. The size and shape of a river’s drainage basin dictates how much precipitation the river can receive and how quickly it will arrive (the lag time). Earthquakes . Erosion & … Out of a data set spanning 199 years5, this flood was the 2nd largest in terms of discharge. When there are hurricanes and tropical storms which will produce heavy rains, or giant tidal waves created by volcanoes or earthquakes, ocean water may be driven onto the coastal areas and cause coastal floods. This means that the overall cost of a flood is generally substantially higher in a MEDC than in a LEDC. Each household was given $1,200 for the reconstruction with $50 going towards a toilet and $110 towards solar powered lighting. In Bihar, 42% of the population lives below the poverty line. Insurance claims came in between £15,000 and £30,000 per property. Water can cause a lot of damage to property and when it picks up large chunks of debris such as cars, it can act like a wrecking ball, taking out chunks of buildings when cars crash into them. Water & power supplies were taken out during the flood. Map modified from this map by Nilfanion/Wikipedia. The topography of the Boscastle area and the courses of the River Valency and the River Jordan. Floodways can in some cases be occasional, which means the channel is dry for part of the year. Follow Super Brainy Beans's board Rivers & flooding on Pinterest. Volcanoes. Site design and development by Alex Jackson (), Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, Praise and donation from their duke (The Guardian), Villagers clean up after flash floods (The Guardian), Boscastle: safe to rebuild (The Guardian), Boscastle reborn as a green beacon (The Guardian), Displaced Boscastle residents return home (The Guardian), ‘No deaths in Boscastle flood’ (The Guardian), Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 German, India: Untouchables suffer ‘relief discrimination’ after flood (The Guardian), India: Up to 2,000 feared dead in Bihar floods (The Guardian), Heavy rain stalls Indian flood relief (The Guardian), Indian government hits back at claims of inadequate supplies in flood zones (The Guardian), Tensions rise over Indian flood relief (The Guardian), Disease outbreak feared in wake of flood (The Guardian), Indian monsoon floods leave a million homeless (The Guardian), Government of Bihar, World Bank & Global Facility for Disaster Reduction & Recovery Report, Proposed Emergency Recovery (The World Bank). Floodplains are the area beside a river or a stream which susceptible to floods. To stop roads and streets from flooding, humans will often build storm drains that collect rainwater and channel it into a river or stream. If there is a possibility of flooding in your area, immediately move to higher ground. In 2007, these defences were put to the test and a much smaller, more controlled flood occurred. This increased surface runoff due to a lack of both infiltration and interception, increasing the volume of water entering the River Valency and its tributaries. Flooding A river floods when the water normally flowing in the channel overflows its banks and spreads out onto the surrounding land. If a river has a lot of tributaries, the river’s discharge will be much higher because lots of water will be entering it from its tributaries. For example, floods are welcomed by farmers in Asia as floods support the cultivation of rice crops. Floods kill more people each year than any other natural disaster. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 German license. As well as prolonged rainfall, brief periods of heavy rain can also lead to floods. Not only this, it can lead to a decline in the local economy as businesses are unable to operate without power or road connections. Flood risk and flood management. Map modified from this map by NordNordWest/Wikipedia. Interestingly, Eyjafjallajökull is the name of the glacier that capped the volcano and not the volcano itself.↩, This type of volcanic eruption is known as a subglacial eruption. Rivers deposit new nutrient-rich sediments when they flood and so floodplains have traditionally been good for farming. This improves the fertility of the floodplain and can improve agricultural yield in an area (assuming the floodwater wasn’t polluted). The point I’m trying to get at is that the recurrence interval isn’t the most useful thing in the world because it’s just an average and averages can (and often do) have anomalies. In this KS2 Geography Flooding Lesson Pack, children consider the consequences of too much water in a given area by looking at the flooding in Boscastle and by carrying out a flood readiness survey in school. This pack includes guides, lesson plan templates, activity sheets and more to teach students about different types of flooding, what causes flooding, and flood … Floods occur when the discharge volume of the river becomes too large for the channel to contain. 70% of Bihar’s population are farmers and 100,000 Ha of land was inundated by floodwater, destroying wheat and rice that could be traded. The flooding was worsened by the deforestation that had taken place in the Kosi River’s drainage basin. According to Wikipedia, A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry. The night after the disaster, 100 people used the Camelford leisure centre as a refuge. A floodplain comprises of two sections. Dynamic Earth: Introduction to Physical Geography. Flooding is a natural part of the yearly cycle of a river, creating flood plains, levees and various other features. The River Valency had a confluence with the River Jordan directly in Boscastle leading to huge volumes of water flowing through the town when both river’s discharge increased. Rivers and floods for kids KS2 learning at Primary School. Rescue services can be dispatched to a flood quickly in a MEDC whereas in a LEDC, rescue teams mightn’t arrive until several hours after the flood started. Its borders are highlighted in blue. Housing shortage. Flooding is often more severe in areas that have been recently logged. The most common cause of flooding is prolonged rainfall. A few days after the flood, geologists flew over the area to assess the risk of landslides triggered by the heavy rain. Essays of michel de montaigne. From a teaching and learning perspective, flooding offers several important opportunities because, in order to make sense of these issues, students … Using the formula, this means that a flood of this size is expected to occur once every 100 years (\(\frac{199+1}{2}\)). Flood water can travel surprisingly quickly and weighs3 a lot, so people can easily get swept away by floods. Here is a list of key facts all about flooding … The frequency of tidal flooding can be attributed to some of the symptoms of climate change, s… Another economic benefit comes from when a river floods and deposits sediment across the floodplain. http://www.opengeography.org/physical-geography.html. After the events of the flood, people were less willing to travel to Boscastle because of the (low) risk of another flood occurring. ↩, A rounded conversion from 1×106 feet3 per second. This leads to a sudden and large increase in the river’s discharge which can result in a flash flood. There were allegations of discrimination when it came to evacuating people. Flood is a term used to denote an enormous amount of water. It was claimed that the rich were evacuated first and given the most emergency food while some members of the “untouchables” (the lowest class in the caste system and Hindu society) weren’t evacuated at all. In a MEDC, property damage is often extensive as people have lots of expensive possessions. Floods usually occur when precipitation falls more quickly than that water can be absorbed into the ground or carried away by rivers or … It’s long but very detailed. Businesses were badly damaged with property destroyed or filled with silt, sewage and debris. The recurrence interval tells you how many years you’d expect to have between a flood of a certain size. Perhaps unsurprisingly, floods tend to affect low-lying areas most severely. The rain fell over Bodmin Moor, an area composed of impermeable shale that is has sparse vegetation cover. If you’re trying to measure the recurrence interval of an event that doesn’t have a magnitude (such as the recurrence interval of a flood of no specific size) use the following formula: \[T=\frac{n}{m} \] \(T\) is, again, the recurrence interval, \(n\) is the number of years on record and \(m\) is the number of times this event has occurred. Map from Google. 70% of Bihar’s population are farmers, many of which are subsistence farmers. ↩. In two hours over 60mm of rain fell in Boscastle and by the end of the flood, nearly 200mm had fallen. Flooding … Floodwater that is contaminated with sewage will pollute rivers and land when it drains back into the river. 76 cars were washed out to sea because of the low lying nature of the town’s car park. Slides prepared are to be used alongside textbook 2. Make sure your print out your geographyalltheway worksheet and put it into your files in the rivers section. Reasons for housing shortage . Flooding occurs when the amount of water in a river exceeds the capacity of the channel, causing it to burst its banks onto the flood plain. A map of Bihar showing the major rivers flowing through the state. This (obviously) reduces vegetation cover, reducing infiltration and increasing surface runoff into a river. Primary Homework help with rivers and floods. Zadie smith essay on writing: an interactive approach to writing essays and research reports in psychology 3rd ed essay on electronic money, what's an interpretive essay how to incorporate a poem in an … Map modified from this map by Nilfanion/Wikipedia. When there is an outflow of water in a place, it is said to be flooded. The monsoon brought heavy rainfall to the foothills of the Himalayas and dramatically increased the discharge of the Kosi. Housing. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 German license. In the sense of flowing water, the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. ↩, I know it was the middle of summer and it was hot but this is Britain we’re talking about. This mightn’t be until the end of winter, so potentially several months. Urbanisation (generally) involves the laying down of tarmac and concrete, impermeable substances that will increase surface runoff into the river and therefore increase the river’s discharge. During a flood, sewage pipes are often broken and raw sewage leaks into the floodwater. Floods can occur for a variety of reasons, and their effects can be minimized in several different ways. River words. An “Owner Driven Housing Reconstruction” scheme was created, funded by the World Bank, to give money to homeowners to rebuild their homes using bamboo, bricks, corrugated iron & concrete. Aid agencies were dispatched to Bihar and were especially important in ensuring that the lower classes of society were given aid. Thunderstorms can cause flash floods, in which small rivers can swell quickly and carry up to ten times the normal amount of water.Rivers that flow slowly carry water, sand and silt. The flood killed 500-2000 people. The river was forced to flow into a channel that it hadn’t flown through in over 100 years. The disaster ended up costing nearly $542 million according to some reports. Floods (weather events where water temporarily covers land it normally doesn't cover) can happen anywhere, but features like geography can actually increase your risk for specific types of flooding.Here are the main types of floods to look out for (each is named for the weather condition or geography that cause them): 1,500 soldiers were sent to help rescue citizens and disperse aid. High water levels have also caused small dams to break, wreaking havoc downstream. 3 million people were made homeless and sent to refuge camps. Figures vary because government figures don’t include missing people while figures from aid agencies do. In LEDCs, this infrastructure is lacking, so there isn’t much economic damage. is actually just a measurement of the volume of water that flows in a river every second If a basin has very dense vegetation cover, the vegetation will intercept precipitation and store it, reducing the volume of water entering a river. The accuracy of the recurrence interval is dependent on the amount of historical data available about previous floods. Even if the ground is too wet to absorb more water, plants still slow the water’s passage and increase the time between rainfall and the water’s arrival in a stream; this could keep all the water falling over a region to hit the stream at once. The New Madrid Overflow in the image above was created with the recognition that the Mississippi River sometimes simply cannot be contained by levees and must be allowed to flood.Not all the consequences of flooding are negative. Plants and fish along the Colorado River, for example, depend on seasonal flooding to rearrange sand bars. Conversely, if a basin is sparsely vegetated then there will be no interception and so more water will enter a river. This is due to the amount of water that rivers bring with them, because of heavy rainfall or melting snow in the mountainous regions. The World Bank gave significant funds to help Bihar recover and rebuild after the disaster. Although the dam protects crops and settlements from the annual floods, farmers must now use fertilizers to feed their crops. Perhaps unsurprisingly, floods tend to affect low-lying areas most severely. The recurrence interval can be calculated using the following formula4: \(T\) is the recurrence interval, \(n\) is the number of years on record and \(m\) is the ranking of the flood relative to all the other floods on record for a specific river. ↩, Weird number, I know, I’m just trying to produce a nice round answer here. The scheme also gave $110 to households that did not own their own land so that they could go out and buy some. … A shortage of clean drinking water and the warm climate meant that water born and vector diseases were easily spread. Living in their homes wasn’t really viable at this stage. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide.Floods are an area of study of the discipline hydrology and are of significant concern in agriculture, civil engineering and public health. The Northside Bridge in Workington, Cumbria collapsed when there were large floods in 2009. The increase in discharge can be triggered by several events. The Kosi River is highlighted in bright blue. Flash flooding also occurred as river banks burst and … Precipitation that falls as snow can remain as snow on the ground until it melts. If the basin’s soil is impermeable, maybe because it has been saturated by previous rainfall or has been baked by prolonged heating, then any precipitation that falls won’t infiltrate and will instead run straight into the river, increasing the river’s discharge and triggering floods. The town won 5 awards for its eco-friendliness. River Keyword search Enter one of the keywords listed on the page and find out what they mean. Shortages of food and emergency grain quickly developed. Aid agencies provided rescue efforts, food, clean water supplies and shelter. Strategies to manage housing shortage. People don’t like that sort of unpredictability though, so they’ll just blame the scientists/statisticians and say they got it wrong. Floods happen on flat or low-lying areas when rainwater falls, or snow melts more rapidly than the water can either infiltrate (soak in) or run off (flow across) the ground. Over 150 people were saved by search and rescue operations. Worksheets. The River’s floodplain had been urbanised reducing infiltration and increasing surface runoff. Flooding occurs when a river’s discharge exceeds its channel’s volume causing the river to overflow onto the area surrounding the channel known as the floodplain. Monsoon season in India occurs in the late summer months and is caused by the seasonal reversal of winds in the area. The approximate location of Boscastle in the UK. Erupting volcanoes can trigger very large flash floods called jökulhlaups when glaciers are partially or even fully melted by an erupting volcano or some other form of geothermal activity. Shale, an impermeable rock million people were saved by search and rescue operations Bihar and... 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